The use of biomass for energy in place of fossil fuels such as coal is becoming increasingly important because the substitution of woody biomass for fossil fuels can reduce greenhouse gas (GHG) emissions into our atmosphere (air). Our atmosphere sustains life on Earth, maintains warmth, and shields the Earth from harmful radiation emitted by the Sun. With the advent of the Industrial Revolution, the mixture of gases and particles in our atmosphere began to change. While the primary gases in our atmosphere are nitrogen (N,2) and oxygen (O2), the greenhouses gases water vapor, carbon dioxide (CO2), methane (CH4), nitrous oxide (NOx), and ozone act like a heat blanket and are important in insulating Earth’s surface.
The burning of fossil fuels has considerably increased atmospheric carbon and other GHGs since the beginning of the Industrial Revolution. When burned, coal and other fossil fuels release CO2 and other gases into the Earth’s atmosphere where they trap and reflect more heat than would normally occur which may result in global climate change. Because this carbon came from fossilized storage (carbon that was produced and stored millions of years ago), it's release represents a net addition into the atmosphere at a quantity more than can be sequestered (stored) by today’s plants, soils, and oceans.
The buildup of human-caused GHGs in our atmosphere from burning fossil fuels can be mitigated through the process of carbon sequestration, or removing CO2 from the atmosphere into long-lived carbon pools such as trees. The process of photosynthesis combines atmospheric CO2 with water, releasing oxygen into the atmosphere and incorporating the carbon atoms into the plant cells. As a result, this carbon neutral process can help displace CO2 emissions from burning fossil fuels (Figure 1). Finding sustainable ways to meet growing energy needs while reducing GHG emissions is one way to address the threat of climate change. While wind and solar power are increasing in popularity and prevalence, so is biomass. Versatile enough to provide heat, power, electricity, transportation fuels, and other products, woody biomass can be used to produce energy on a larger scale than solar and wind, in many cases. It is probable that a successful and sustainable short- and mid-term response to the threat of climate change will be comprised of a suite of renewable energy options that includes woody biomass.
Last edited by gadily on Mon Dec 01, 2014 4:46 am; edited 2 times in total
Posts : 1474 Join date : 2013-12-08
Subject: Re: sustaining wood produce Mon Dec 01, 2014 4:37 am
Back in the 70's when the Energy Crisis started and we had to stay in line waiting for $10 worth of gasoline for hours, one of the solutions suggested other than wind or solar, was to start growing hybrid poplars for heat. Guess what? The energy crunch is back, but this time it will be much worse, oil prices, gas prices, all will go way up. Even food is up about 20%. It is time we start preparing for a new energy crisis. Heating oil and propane have gone up in the last year and will continue increasing in price but wood, if you grow it, will stay the same, and since it is renewable, you can have as much as you need... free.
In the 70s there was a wealth of information on hybrid poplars all over the newspapers, magazines, Radio and TV. I remember having a pamphlet of 20 or so pages with complete information on it. Some companies sold trees, others only cuttings. By this time is when I purchased my first 100 cuttings.
The information I had clearly indicated that if you owned 1 acre of land you could heat your house with wood produced in that one acre and you would be self-sufficient in 5 years.
In theory that works OK, they don't tell you that you cannot put a house in that acre, I guess that is only a minor detail, but in the long run, yes, I believe it is achievable.
This is what you should do as I remember: Plant 600 trees in a grid 8ft. by 8ft. After 2 years you cut the 120 trees closest to the East. This wood will be about 2" in diameter, good for kindling. Doing this will give extra sun light to the trees behind them. Next year (year 3) you cut the next 120 trees behind them. Year 4 you continue cutting your way back. By now you are cutting trees that are about 4 to 5 inches in diameter. Year 5 you have only 120 original trees left. They are 6 inches in diameter which means, no splitting. Cut them down and use them. You should get enough wood from those 120 trees to heat your house that winter.
Up to this point, you have been increasing the amount of wood you cut every year. You would say, now what?
Year 6 you will be cutting down the first lot of 120 trees you cut 5 years ago. They regenerate! Those trees you cut on year 6 will also be 6 inches in diameter. Year after year you will be cutting 120 trees that are 6 inches in diameter. Life expectancy of a poplar is 40 years. Do you think your trees are getting old? Use some of the cuttings you get every year (you get thousands) to plant new trees.
You have heard that poplars do not give you the BTU that other woods do. That is correct, hybrid poplars will give you about .6 of the energy you can get from hard woods, such as hickory or maple but this shortcoming is offset by the amount of wood these trees generate.
I used poplars for many years to heat my house. I also ran two kerosene heaters and the oil burner is set at just below 65 degrees just in case. I no longer use wood for heat, my wife said it was too much work... she never did any of the work! We are now on Propane, about $4000 a year!
Why do I bring this up at this time? Gas prices as well as heating oil prices are starting to increase the same way it happened in the 70's. History repeats itself. Some of you will find it more convenient to heat with wood than with oil, propane or natural gas, besides, it will be much cheaper!
Last edited by gadily on Mon Dec 01, 2014 4:47 am; edited 1 time in total
Posts : 1474 Join date : 2013-12-08
Subject: Re: sustaining wood produce Mon Dec 01, 2014 4:45 am
as with cutting down trees there is there usage via wood burning
Woodgas friends some facts about weights and fuel supply Hi Woodgassers:
I (Stephen with the yahoo woodgas forum) was out cutting fuel today and of course being a geek that needs to get a life, I had to hang some numbers on the event. Here are the results:
Green Chip Trivia:
A 40ft X 20ft swampy area of yellow birch was cut for chip stock in November:
Once chipped, an eight cup bowl held .46kg (460g = 16.226oz ). This gives a chip density of 15.17 lbs/ft^3
A 236g or 8 oz sample of the chips was taken and dried for 3 hours in a 240F oven stirring every 15 minutes. The chip weight dropped to 120g giving a water loss of 116g. This means the chips were 97% moisture on a dry basis.
The plot yielded roughly a pickup truck load of chips after 5 years of growth. This is a yield of approximately (15.17lb/ft^3 * 8ft*4.5ft*2ft =1092lbs)
It took roughly one gallon of diesel to do the chipping so 140,000Btu were expended. If the chips were allowed to air dry to "bone dry"(assuming that is possible, which it isn’t) there would be 555.4lbs of fuel left. The energy content of the fuel would be (8600Btu/lb*555.4lbs= 4,776,235Btu) for an energy "gain" factor of 34.1. Stated another way, the chipping energy required can be a small fraction of the fuel’s energy content.
Another way to think of it is that 800ft^2 of swamp in Maine can grow the equivalent of 6.82 gallons of diesel annually if drying isn’t considered(done by solar kiln….) This is equivalent of 372 gal. of diesel / acre. gain. At 4$ per gallon this is 1485$ per acre saved. This was also NOT a heavily vegetated area. 50%-100% more trees could have easily been grown in the same area.
Posts : 913 Join date : 2013-10-07
Subject: Re: sustaining wood produce Mon Dec 01, 2014 2:32 pm
Great information Gadily, will have to take some time to digest all this. I appreciate your diligence to research and the willingness to share your time and effort you have taken in your research.
You have been a great influence on my thought process in stove development.
Posts : 1474 Join date : 2013-12-08
Subject: Re: sustaining wood produce Tue Dec 02, 2014 10:35 am
This short article will give you a brief introduction to how wood pellets are made. If you are just curious about how to make wood pellets or are interested in making your own wood pellets this is a good place to start.
Pellets can be made from many organic materials such as wood, paper, cardboard straw, grain, alfalfa, corn husks and stalks, grass clippings, yard wastes and many forest and agricultural wastes. In this article we will focus on making pellets from wood but the process for using other materials is basically the same.
To make pellets the wood or other raw material is reduced to small pieces like sawdust. This material is then pressed into a funnel shaped hole called a die. As the material is forced deeper into the die it compresses as the diameter of the die gets smaller. This compresses the material into a dense pellet.
The compression and friction from this process creates heat which melts compounds called lignins that occur naturally in fibrous materials like wood. When the pellet passes out other end of the die it is then allowed to cool. As the lignins cool they act as a glue which binds the material together and produces a hard and strong pellet.
Most pellets are made in large scale pellet mills but in recent years small scale pellet mills are becoming more popular for home owners and small scale pellet businesses. If you are considering making pellets yourself the following will help teach you how to make wood pellets and will better inform you so you will know how to select a pellet mill. Steps Involved in Making Wood Pellets
1, Size Reduction 2, Material Transportation 3, Drying 4, Mixing 5, Conditioning 6, Pellet Production 7, Sieving 8, Cooling 9, Pellet Transportation 10, Bagging and Storage
The material you make into wood pellets must be reduced to a small size. Usually small enough so that it will fit into the dies. If the raw material is over an inch in size it is usually chipped or shredded first. If small material like sawdust is being used this process can be skipped.
The chips or other small pieces can be reduced even more with a hammer mill. If the material is small to begin with the hammer mill may be the only size reduction step needed.
Once the material is reduced it must be transported to the dryer. Depending on the mill there are several ways to transport the material. The most common are screw augers, conveyor belts and vacuum systems. Screw augers are the most common way to move the raw material through the pellet making process before it gets to the pellet mill.
Before making pellets the material must be dried. Depending on the material used the moisture content should be between 10-20%. For the pellet making process to work properly there needs to be some moisture in the material but only in the proper amounts. Drying the material to the proper moisture content is critical in making quality pellets.
Drying with heat is the most energy intense and expensive part of the process of making pellets. It is usually more cost effective to burn pellets to generate the heat. The drier also serves to heat the raw material which makes it more millable.
To create pellets with a consistent quality it is important to have a consistent batch of material. Some materials are already consistent with moisture and density and don’t need to be mixed. Other materials may come out of the dryer with inconsistent moisture size or density. If there is inconsistency in the material it should be fed through a batch mixer, usually a rolling drum or agitator.
Posts : 1474 Join date : 2013-12-08
Subject: Re: sustaining wood produce Tue Dec 02, 2014 10:49 am
The official measurement of firewood is a “cord”, but that word can be used differently in some regions and it can be misused by some firewood dealers.
A full cord is a large amount of wood. It measures four feet high by four feet wide by eight feet long (4 ft. x 4 ft. x 8 ft.) and has a volume of 128 cubic feet. The amount of solid wood in a cord varies depending on the size of the pieces, but for firewood it averages about 85 cubic feet. The rest of the cord volume is air space.
A 'full' cord (4' x 4' x 8') is the official, standard firewood measure, but four foot pieces are never used for home heating, and dealers rarely sell firewood in that form. So firewood is not offered for sale in the form of its official unit measurement, which is why buying firewood can be confusing.
Other terms, such as face cord, stove cord or furnace cord are sometimes used to describe a stack of wood measuring 4 ft. high and 8 ft. long with a piece length shorter than 4 ft. A common firewood piece length is 16 inches, or one-third of a full cord, but other lengths are also available.
Because a winter's supply can cost several hundred dollars, you don't want to be confused when you are purchasing firewood. If you want to compare prices from a number of suppliers, take a tape measure to the dealers' yards and measure the average piece length. If the dealer does not price the wood in the standard full cord measure, convert the price to this basic unit. Here are some examples to illustrate the conversion.
Forest Firewood sells what they call a 'face cord' for $75. You find that the pile is 4 feet high and 8 feet long, with an average piece length of 16 inches. Divide this length (16 in.) into the full cord length of 48 in. and multiply by the price.
48 ÷ 16 = 3 x $75 = $225.
Therefore, Forest Firewood sells firewood for $225 per cord.
Sparky sells what he calls a 'stove cord' for $60. It is a pile measuring 4 feet by 8 feet with an average length of 12 inches. The calculation is:
48 ÷ 12 = 4 x $60 = $240.
Therefore, Sparky sells firewood for $240 per cord.
Frontier Fuel sells a 4 foot x 8 foot x 18 inch 'furnace cord' for $85. The result is:
48 ÷ 18 = 2.67 x $85 = $227.
Therefore, Frontier Fuel sells firewood for $227 per cord.
If possible, avoid buying firewood in units that cannot be related to the standard full cord. Station wagon loads, pick-up truck loads other units are difficult to compare and can conceal a high price per cord measure.
Avoid buying firewood by telephone without going to see the wood at the suppliers yard. Ideally, you can pace off the particular stacks that you will buy so you know exactly what you are buying.
Other factors that can make a given volume of firewood more expensive, and yet possibly more valuable to you, are
shorter lengths usually cost more because of more cutting and handling firewood cut in consistent lengths is more convenient to use and may cost more because the dealer gives greater attention to detail more finely split pieces usually cost more per cord because of increased labor drier wood costs more because it has been stored longer and under better conditions cleaner firewood is more valuable because sand or mud in the bark makes the wood less pleasant to use
It takes some experience to gain confidence in your ability to judge good firewood for your heater. Don't feel shame if you have made a bad firewood purchase; everyone who heats with wood has done that at least once.
Posts : 1474 Join date : 2013-12-08
Subject: Re: sustaining wood produce Tue Dec 02, 2014 11:10 am
Subject: Re: sustaining wood produce Sat Dec 06, 2014 10:28 pm
this is the 3 wheel instead of the normal 2 wheel
for those that want to know what is used in there dies between flat and ring dies
that these dies are made of a hardened 420 stainless steel. One of the manufacturers calls theirs a Chrome die. I had heard from a tool manufacturer that the solid carbide countersinking bits are made to be used with a CNC machine. The dies are 26 inch ID, 3 inch thick, 7 inches wide, and weigh 360 pounds. This brand is a stainless steel that's been hardened.